Monday, August 2, 2010

Disaster Management: Role of the Area Command in Military Operations other than War

Copyright © 2010 by Chester B. Cabalza (All Rights Reserved)

Executive Summary

The Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) focus on deterring war, resolving conflict, promoting peace, and supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crises. MOOTW not involving the use or threat of force also include humanitarian assistance and disaster relief.

Today, there are current initiatives and area command on disaster preparedness and response by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). The mission is to assist the NDCC in the conduct of search, rescue, relief, and rehabilitation operations. The functions include the following: to establish communication linkages; organize disaster reaction units; to provide land, sea and air transport; assist the PNP in providing security; render immediate medical assistance; and assist in the reconstruction of damage infrastructures.

The concept of operations has three phases. Phase 1 is Pre-disaster phase that involves activities in preparation for calamities and disasters. This includes planning activities, organizing and training, public information drive, communication and warning activities. Phase 2 is Emergency Phase that is about actual mobilization and conduct of emergency services. This includes rescue and engineering services, evacuation operations, first aid and medical services, disaster relief services, law and order and security services, emergency transport services, and damage assessment. Phase 3 is Post-Emergency phase that supports relief operations and rehabilitation efforts. This determines the nature and extent of rehabilitation efforts, conduct of assessment of available resources, and participate in the restoration, repair and construction of public facilities.

Context and Significance of the Problem/Issue/Opportunity

The policy context of the project is based from the Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA), NDCC Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Framework, and NLUC Agenda Action. The HFA is aimed at the following: 1) ensure DRM is a local and national priority with strong implementation plans; 2) identify, assess and monitor risks to enhance early warnings; 3) use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience; 4) reduce the underlying risk factors; 5) strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels. She also pointed out the NDCC Disaster Risk Management Framework of Mitigation, Preparedness (pre-event), Response and Rehabilitation (post-event). Lastly, the NLUC Agenda Action which makes available hazard maps and other technical information and to enhance LGU capacity to institute preventive measures and prepare DRM-enhanced plans.

AFP (national, regional, and local) current initiatives are the following:

1. Sections in the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) and RDPs

2. Policy Options in the National Framework for Physical Planning (RPFP) and RPFPs

3. Disaster Risk Management Plan for Region I and Metro Manila
4. Flood Mitigation Plan/ River Basin Plans (e.g. Cagayan, Bicol, Mindanao River, Agusan)

5. GIS Cookbook of HLURB

6. Piloting in land use plans of certain municipalities

Execution Committee

The current initiatives of the AFP on disaster responses, are executed in the following: 1) soldiers in remote detachment are being trained in disaster response operations; 2) promotion, participation, and advocacy on public disaster education and consciousness; 3) field units stand ready to provide “emergency feeding, housing and clothing” to disaster victims and survivors; 3) forming international emergency management partnerships to share lessons learned and best practices; 4) collaborating with advanced countries on chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN) consequence management issues; and attending international emergency management forums, training and education.

The AFP are with agencies such as ISDR, UNDAC and are involved in forums such as with the Asian Disaster Management Center.

The Office of Civil Defense (OCD) through the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) provides for NDCC Coordination, that are linked to the other Disaster Coordinating Councils (DCC) and to the AFP Command Center.

In Mindanao, for example, at present they have to act through a coordinated response with the AFP Command Center. In the situation, they have to communicate to the people on the ground for assistance, response and resources. The Regional DCCs (RDCCs) are linked to the Provincial DCCs (PDCCs), depending on their location. The bodies come to the national government for support. Thusly, execution of their plans must be aligned to the local plan.

The inadequate that the Disaster Coordinating Councils (DCCs) are adhoc bodies, which do not even have their own offices such that they are just organized when there is the disaster. It was strongly advised that this should not be the case.

The Regional Disaster Coordinating Councils (RDCCs) sometimes undertake coordination meetings even when there are no disasters. Through this, they enhance their participation with the responders. He expressed his hope to enhance further relations with the AFP and the Local Government Units (LGUs) to enable them to know their roles more.

Critique Policy

“If the military and civilian mix in one institution in provisional level, civilian can discipline and the military can be accepted in the institution to lead the civilian”

There are two issues for the DND on the Disaster Risk Management and Response. First is the issue of current socio-economic realities, and second is the insurgency and terrorism. Hence, the challenge is to develop defense and military capabilities in the medium and long-term while carefully considering the prevailing strategic environment. He then sees the solution as defense policies that are based on the efficient and effective use of resources in the development of defense and military capability. For DND, the answer has been the implementation of the Multi-Year Capability Planning System (MYCaPS) with the Defense Resource Management System (DRMS) as one of its main components.

The Multi-Year Capability Planning System (MYCaPS) has the following pillars:

1. MYCaPS is a capability-based force planning construct to achieve defense policy goals;

2. MYCaPS is a shift from threat-based force development, driven by requirements built on specific threats, to force planning, built on a set of desired capabilities for any given defense mission area;

3. MYCaPS force planning will determine the future operational concepts and the size, shape and force mix of the Armed Forces in order to provide capabilities across the full range of defense missions.

The paradigm shift in defense policy for capability development are planning and budgeting. The three-fold purpose of MYCaPS include the following: 1) ensure that future costs of today’s decision is understood (making hard decisions today for future benefits); 2) strengthen effective control of Civil Authorities over DND-AFP Establishment; 3) establish and institutionalize systems for long-term and medium-term strategic planning, capability planning, defense acquisition and financial management.

Through conceptual framework, MYCaPS and DSOM consider the following: 1) Defense Strategic Planning System (DSPS); 2) Defense Capability Assessment and Planning System (DCAPS); 3) Defense Acquisition System (DAS); 4) Defense Resource Management System (DRMS).

The MYCaPS Phase II using key concepts and features of DSOM. The purpose is to present an overview of the defense system of management. The briefing has two objectives where is to highlight key features of DSOM and now they are linked with each other. The following Defense Mission Area Framework are the following: 1) Internal Security; 2) Territorial Defense; 3) Disaster Risk Management and Response; 4) Support to National Development; 5) International Defense and Security Engagement; 6) Humanitarian Assistance and Peace keeping Operations; 7) Force-Level Command and Control, Training and Support.

He said that DSOM has the objective future end-state of DND-AFP system of management systems. Collaboratively developed by senior civilian and military leaders assisted by a team from the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA). This is promulgated in Department Order 32, Department Circular 01, and SNS Memorandum dated 7 March 2008.

Defense System of Management is comprised of four mutually supporting management systems. It builds upon and extends the capability-based planning processes and institutional reforms implemented under MYCaPS. Proper Processes, Products and Linkages are used in Defense Strategic Planning System, Defense Capability Assessment and Planning System, Defense Resource Management System, and Defense Acquisition System.

The Overview of Systems are as follows:

1. Effectively links key functions and areas

2. Establishes coherent master schedule of major events that supports DND and AFP medium- and long-term planning requirements.

3. Provides basis for gaining timely, informed, integrated insights on resource related defense issues across the spectrum of defense activities.

4. Requires concise senior leader decision products

5. Resource planning direction linked to actual spending and performance

The Defense Strategic Planning should address current and emerging national security and defense concerns, should shape national security and defense policy, should develop plans that accomplish national objectives. Hence, Defense Strategic Planning System should provide basis for developing, 1) both medium- and long-term Strategic Environment Assessments and Strategic Planning Assessments; and 2) Strategic Plans that address high priority national objectives and employ a whole of government approach.

The DSOM Capability Assessment and Planning provides a coherent basis for implementing the missions assigned in strategic plans; assessing the readiness and capability to perform assigned mission and tasks; and developing and assessing options that address identified challenges.

The DSOM Programming Phase provides a systematic basis for developing fiscally constrained multi-year program proposals that comply with DPG’s capability based objectives and priorities and fiscal limits.

The DSOM Budgets Implement Programs uses programming that determines the best mix of capabilities within financial limits; budgeting converts the first year of the approved program into budget requests for inputs and annul spending plans; annual spending plans show how money will be spent to achieve program objectives; budget requests and spending plans are driven by the first year of the approved defense program.

The use of Force-Oriented Cost Information System (FOCIS) is now being used by Resource Management Offices (RMOs) to develop and submit proposed programs replacing the former Defense Resource Management Model (DRMM).

Lastly, the DSOM Performance Review highlights status of capabilities and areas of senior leader interest; identifies corrective actions needed; and products like program implementation reports and financial management reports; and review occurs at several levels like functional managers, resource mangers, department and senior advisors. Integrated Performance Review include: Program and Budget Implementation must both be monitored; Program Results and spending reports should be cross-referenced for performance reviews.

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